Classification of Pipe Fittings - Mcneil Instruments Inc.

Classification of Pipe Fittings

There are two main types of pipe fittings commonly used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems; flanged and screwed. Screwed pipe fittings use a male and female thread combination and when screwed together tighten to form the joint. A flanged pipe fitting has a lip or extension projecting at a right angle to its surface. This lip is bolted to the facing lip of the adjacent fitting for added strength. Because of the strength of this fitting, flanged fittings are recommended for 4-inch pipe or larger.

Both of these pipe fittings are used to make temporary joints because you can ultimately take them apart when needed. If the joint is ever brazed, soldered or welded the join is considered permanent as the join will not come apart. The advantage of these two temporary joints is that it can be easily disassembled for repairs down the road.

The typical pipe fittings can be divided on the basis of the following six functions:

  1. Reducing or enlarging
  2. Branching
  3. Extension or joining
  4. Shutoff or closing
  5. Union or makeup
  6. Direction

Reducing or Enlarging Fittings: Both bushing and reducers are examples of reducing or enlarging fittings. Their function in pipe installations is to connect pipes of different sizes. The difference between a bushing and a reducer is distinguished by their construction. A reducer is a coupling device with female threads at both ends. A bushing has both male and female threads on each end.

Branching Fittings: A branching fitting is used to join a branch pipe to the main line. These fittings are used for Tees, Crosses, Elbows with side outlets, Y branches and Return bends.

Extension of Joining Fittings: Nipples, locknuts, couplings, offsets, joints and unions are all examples of extension or joining fittings. With the possible exception of an offset, these fittings are designed to join and extend a length of a pipe.

Shutoff Fittings: Sometimes it is necessary to close the end of a pipe in your system. This is accomplished with a shutoff or closing fitting and the following two types are used for Plugs and Caps.

Union or Makeup Fittings: These are represented by union elbows and union tees. This type of fitting combines both a union and an elbow or tee in a single uni. They come in both male and female threads to attach where needed.

Directional Fitting: Direction fittings such as offsets elbows and return bends are used to change the direction of a pipe. Offsets may be considered to be a type of extension or joining fitting because of the overlap in function.

Pipe fittings are used in all aspects of new HVAC equipment and also in repairs. Understanding the difference between these fittings will help you on your next HVAC job.

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Pipe Fitting Measurements - Mcneil Instruments Inc.

All About Pipe Fitting Measurements

Pipe fitting and their sizes

Pipe fitting measurements are in indicated in either the English or the Metric System. It includes variety of features and stages and for this reason using the usual outlines would be discussed in this write up. In this article, readers are presented with some things to consider regarding pipe fitting and the like.


Pipe fittings have many techniques. Usual methods are compression fittings, pitless adapters, flexible couplings and four-way fittings. Techniques like bulk head fitting and cap and rigid fitting are also noted for the procedure. Variations of elbows could either be 90 or 45 degrees. Reducing elbows, ferrules and expansion couplings are noted kinds of fittings as well. Variations of their sizes are available as well for flanges, plugs, nipples and end bells. To be realistic, setups for pipe settings vary: it really depends on the usage.

Shapes and materials

The materials and shape are key features to check with regards to fitting of pipes. The usual shapes are round, square, oval and rectangular kinds. Materials also vary, but to name a few, carbon, bronze, ceramic and ABS are usually preferred. Vitrified clay, flouresin, fiberglass, cast iron and EPDM are some materials being utilized. Other prefers stainless and steel alloys for its flexibility while titanium and rubber could also be good materials. The different functions of pipe fittings assert why there are different materials being used.

Schedule numbers

ANSI or American National Standards Institute devised a norm that calculates the thickness of the wall and that is the ‘schedule numbers’. The schedule numbers includes all pipe sizes: from NPS 1/8′ up to NPS 36′. It should be noted that this connection is only for fittings that match with the exact American National Standards Institute schedule number.

Metric and English measurements

The metric system of measurement uses meters or millimeters while the Standard English gauges use inches when measuring. A 4 mm four-way or cross is about 3/16 inches and 3 mm for a 1/8 inches coupling. A 2 mm is around (plug or cap) 1/16 inches in size. For further sizes, the internet is one of the best resources to check for standard measurements. Knowing something about pipe fitting could definitely an advantage in working projects related to fitting of pipes. Nonetheless, asking somebody who is a veteran regarding this information should also be considered.

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Types of Instrumentation Pipe Fittings - Mcneil Instruments Inc.

Type of Instrumentation Pipe Fittings

Instrumentation pipe fittings are typically used to connect pipes of variable or same size and also for assorted functions like managing the flow, diversion and blocking. These fittings are generally classified based on their purpose or function.  Some of the common types of pipe fittings include Coupling, Plug & Union, Cap, Female Branch Tee, Female Elbow, Female Run Tee and Male Run Tee. As mentioned above, they are exploited to measure, restrict or regulate the flow of liquids / gases in tandem with other pipe fittings such as valves.

Some of the distinct functions of instrumentation pipe fittings include –

  1. To bifurcate or change the direction of the flow of raw material or liquid / gaseous end product.
  2. Prevent further streaming by installing a cap.
  3. Manage flow consistency through variable pipe sizes or pipe fittings.
  4. Creating fork / split in the flow through Tee and Elbow.

Interestingly, these fittings are used in plants and control rooms which are exposed to harsh conditions and therefore made from special materials such as high grade stainless steel, carbon steel, nickel, metal alloys, copper and brass.

There are few manufacturers who offer a complete range of instrumentation pipe fittings and that too with consistent quality. Mcneil, a trusted instrumentation pipe fittings exporter is one such entity. Some of the salient features of its products are –

  • Designed and manufactured from high quality materials which adhere to grade and class specifications.
  • Impeccable and consistent dimensional adherence. It simply means no ruptures even under extreme pressure.
  • Instrumentation pipe fittings which are highly resistant to corrosion and natural elements.
  • Fittings that withstand physical wear and tear ensuring stable and consistent performance.
  • Build as per international / local standards. For project managers getting approvals from concerned board / authorities is an absolutely smooth affair.

Mcneil’s instrumentation fittings are a joy to work with as each and every component fits snugly, with minimum torque or pressure. Because of this ease of use projects are completed before the deadline saving enormous resources.

Mcneil, tagged best instrumentation pipe fittings manufacturer in Mumbai also uses state of the art machinery to make instrumentation pipes and fittings, exploiting raw materials purchased from reputed manufacturers who follow strict design and manufacturing nomenclature themselves. The company also offers custom design services which are produced with the same set of values and standards making it a leading instrumentation pipe fittings supplier in India.

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Best Pipe Fittings Manufacturers in India - Mcneil Instruments Inc.

Best Pipe Fittings Manufacturers in India

Pipe and pipe fittings are the lifelines of any processing plant. Ask pipe fittings manufacturers and this entity will vouch for the summation. Whether it is a pilot, mini or giant chemical, petrochemical or oil and gas infrastructure, each one carries hundreds of fittings such as couplings, plug & union, cap, female branch tee, female elbow, female run tee and male run tee.

These accessories encounter intense external and internal threats in the form of high temperatures, perpetual pressure, and remaining neutral even in corrosive ambience. All this is a perfect breeding ground for accidents in case any component malfunctions. And therefore plant design engineers opt for pipe fittings suppliers with impeccable repute and experience.

Mcneil Instruments is one of the pioneers in this domain, and the pulse of this industry. It also happens to be the popular choice of most project development in charge. Its pipe fittings perform well, even under extreme duress which in turn keeps the plant running at peak efficiency and without any mishaps. Mcneil Instruments, one of the best pipe fittings suppliers manufactures products which are synonymous with the following attributes.

  • Leak-proof and superlative seals which can withstand immense torque thereby preventing leaks and escape of volatile and corrosive gases.
  • Pipes which boast uniform wall thickness and made from high grade alloys / metals. These pipes can withstand intense internal and external pressure, corrosive chemicals, toxic liquid polymers and heat. These are some of the essential raw materials or by products of a processing plant.
  • Processing plants also utilize several hydraulic accessories such as valves and gates. These accessories are continuously under tremendous pressure. Most of the time, they also need to address highly corrosive nature of the batch ingredients / end product. And therefore they are treated with hot dip galvanizing, epoxy layering etc.  

Mcneil Instruments adheres to these standards which has made it one of the top pipe fittings exporters. Its products confirm to various benchmarks including HP-0 approval by TUV.  The quality approval is not just limited to the said agency.

Trusted pipe fittings suppliers such as Mcneil Instruments are known for their irrefutable quality. An ISO 9001: 2008 certified manufacturer, it provides instrumentation and process pipe fittings that are crack & rupture proof while its seals have excellent resistance to pressure and caustic environment which results in zero gas and chemical leaks. Get in touch today and build a plant that outlasts even the most challenging timeline.

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